History of stones !
From the dawn of our species to the present day, stone-made artefacts are the dominant form of material remains that have survived to today concerning human technology.
The term “Stone Age” was coined in the late 19th century CE by the Danish scholar Christian J. Thomsen, who came up with a framework for the study of the human past, known as the “Three Age System”. The basis of this framework is technological: it revolves around the notion of three successive periods or ages: Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age, each age being technologically more complex than the one before it. Thomsen came up with this idea after noticing that the artefacts found in archaeological sites displayed regularity in terms of the material that they were made with: stone-made tools were always found in the deepest layers, bronze artefacts in layers on top of the deepest layers, and finally iron-made artefacts were found closest to the surface. This suggested that metal technology developed later than stone-made tools.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE STONE AGE
India possesses a wide spectrum of dimensional stones that include granite, marble, sandstone, limestone, slate, and quartzite, spread out all over the country. India is also amongst the largest producer of raw stone material and the sectors is quite developed and vibrant in the South, as well as in Rajasthan and Gujarat, with a dedicated resource of entrepreneurs. India also has an indigenous resource of machinery and tool manufacturers which cater well to the demands of this sector.
The Indian stone industry has evolved into the production and manufacturing of blocks, flooring slabs, structural slabs, calibrated - ready to fix tiles, monuments, tombs stones, sculptures, artifacts, cobbles, cubes, kerbs, pebbles and landscape garden stones.
Tradition of stones
India's history, dating back to 3200 BC has been influenced considerably by the disposition, development and use of stones and other construction materials. Dimension stones have also left deep imprints on the architectural heritage of the country. Innumerable temples, forts and palaces of Ancient Indian Civilisation have been carved out of locally available stones. The Taj Mahal at Agra was constructed from Indian marble. Some of the rock-cut structures include Khajuraho Temple, Elephanta Caves, and Konark Temple. Besides, all major archeological excavations have revealed exquisitely carved statuettes and carvings in stone. Ancient Buddhist monuments like the Sanchi Stupa of 3rd century BC have also been carved out of stone.
This tradition of Stone Architecture has continued to the present era, with most of the important modern buildings in India like the Presidential House, Parliament House, and Supreme Court made from high quality sandstone of Rajasthan. The Bahá'í House of Worship of New Delhi stands testimony to the relevance of marble in modern Indian architecture.
Stones are still the mainstays of civil construction in India, with stones being used extensively in public buildings, hotels, and temples. It is increasingly being used in homes, with the use of stones now penetrating amongst the growing middle class of India.
The success of commercial stone industry solely depends upon defects in rock/stone. Natural defects in ornamental/commercial rock deposits adversely affect the quality of rock deposit. Detection of natural defects in decorative and dimensional stone industry play vital role in the quality assessment.
India is pioneer in the exploration, mining of commercial rock deposits and in establishing a firm base for stone industry. India, with an estimated resource of about 1,690 million cu m, comprising over 160 shades of Dimension Stone Granites (DSG), accounts for about 205 of the world resources. Of the 300 varieties being traded in the world market, nearly half of them are from India. Commercially viable granite and other rock deposits are reported from Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and others.
Marble was used for building tombs, temples and palaces. For a long[ time it was considered as Royal Stone. It is, however, now used in hotels and homes too. There are many varieties.
• Makrana: Makrana is the source of the marble used in the Taj Mahal. It is situated at a distance of 60 km from Kishangarh and falls in the Nagaur district of Rajasthan. The region has various mining ranges, mainly Doongri, Devi, Ulodi, Saabwali, Gulabi, Kumari, Neharkhan, Matabhar, Matabhar kumari, Chuck doongri, Chosira and Pahar Kua amongst others.
• Rajnagar Marble: World's largest marble-producing area, with over 2,000 gang saw units located in the nearby town of Udaipur to process the material produced. Agaria is the best variety of this area, with numerous other varieties and patterns, primarily in white base. The marble is dolomitic and often has quartz intrusions.
• Andhi Marble: Located near the capital city of the state of Jaipur (also known as the 'Pink City'), it is dolomitic marble with intrusions of tremolite, and is commonly known by the name of pista (pistachio) marble, because of the green coloured tremolite against an off-white background. One of the famous varieties of this area was known as Indo-Italian, owing to its resemblance with Satvario Marble. Most of the mining of this famous field is now banned by the Supreme Court of India because of the vicinity of the area to the Sariska Tiger Reserve.
• Salumber Marble: Also known as Onyx Marble, it has thick bands of green and pink hint. A resemblance to Onyx Marble from Pakistan gives it this name. This is also highly dolomitic.
• Yellow Marble: Though it has not been metamorphosed and hence is still a limestone, it is known as Yellow Marble in trade circles. It is mined in the Jaisalmer District.
• Bidasar: These are ultra basic rocks in shades of brown and green colour found in Rajasthan. The criss-cross linear pattern give it a remarkable resemblance to a photograph of dense forest. These are also known as forest green/brown or fancy green/brown.
• Morwad: Kishangarh Marble
• Gujarat - AmbaJi White Marble: It is one of the finest marble produced in India. It can be easily compared with Makarana Marble. It is highly calcic and is produced in a town called Ambaji (famous for its temple of Durga Devi). The marble has a very soft and waxy look, and is often used by sculptors.
• Rajasthan - Abu Black: This is one of the rare Black textured marble available. Only produced in the mines of Abu road, this amazing Black textured stone is the finest decorative marble ideal for homemakers, temples, sculptures and corporate houses.
• Madhya Pradesh - Katni Range: It is famous for its beige coloured marble which is dolomitic but highly crystalline, with very fine grain size and some quartz intrusions. The marble accepts excellent polish. Another variety of the same range is red/maroon-coloured marble.
• 'Jabalpur range' contains dolomitic marble of excellent whiteness. It is more often used as dolomite lumps for chemical and industrial uses.
• Indian Green Marble: It is found in Rajasthan India, Indian Green Marble's most quarries is situated in Kesariyaji it is 60 KM far from Udaipur Rajasthan India. This Indian green marble is famous all over the world. In Europe people know Indian green marble as a verde guatemala. Many kinds of varieties available in Indian green marble. Indian Green Marble is Exported to Africa , Europe , Australia , Middle East and many Asian countries. It is found in Udaipur District state Rajasthan of India.
India has varieties of granite in over 200 shades. As on 2005, Granite reserves in India was 37,426 million cubic metres and ranked fifth in export of processed product. Resources are found in Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh.
Sandstone reserves in India are found over the states of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Karnataka, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. Over 90% of the deposits of sandstone are in Rajasthan, spread over the districts of Bharatpur, Dholpur, Kota, Jodhpur, Sawai-Madhopur, Bundi, Chittorgarh, Bikaner, Jhalawar, Pali, Shivpuri, Khatu and Jaisalmer.
India is among the leading countries when it comes to mining and export of sandstone. The best part with Sandstone from India is that it is available in different colors and considered best for interior as well as exterior use. Few most popular sandstone products from India include names like Tint Mint, White Mint, Mint Fossils, Modak, Agra Red, Rainbow Sandstone, Raj Green, Teak, Buff Brown, Dhoplur Chocolate, Beige, Dholpur Pink, Lalitpur Pink, Mandana Red, Jodhpur pink, Jodhpur red, Jaisalmer yellow etc.
These sandstone are available in a number of finishes and come with great strength. However, Sandstone like Rainbow is only available in layered form and so is not suitable when good thickness is required and Jodhpur sandstone is best when used in front elevation and high comprehensive strength. To illustrate it clearly, you can't have cobbles out of Rainbow sandstone in particular as it is usually available in the slabs form.
Slate reserves in India are found in Rajasthan, Behror, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh. Deposits in Rajasthan are spread over the districts of Alwar, Ajmer, Bharatpur, Tonk, Sawai Madhopur, Pali, Udaipur, Churu, and Chittorgarh.
Few important names in slate are Jak Black, Silver Shine, Silver grey, Panther, Deoli Green, Peacock, Peacock Multi, Kund Black, Kund Multi and so on. Being to some extent fragile in nature, it is good for interior use only and can be used in even as washboards.
Kotastone of Kota district and Yellow Limestone of Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan are the prime limestone occurrences in India. Other deposits include the Shahabad Stone of Gulbarga and the Belgaum districts of Karnataka, Cuddapah Stone of Kadapa, Kurnool and the Anantapur & Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh, Milliolitic Limestone from Saurashtra Region, Gujarat, and 'Yellow Limestone' of Kutch district of Gujarat, amongst others.
Andhra Pradesh has the privilege of possessing about 32% of the country's total reserves of limestone. Commercial grade limestone deposits are being exploited from Bethamcherla, Macherla, Neereducherla, Tandur, ((shahabad)), Mudimanikyam of Kurnool, Guntur,Anantapur, Rangareddy, and Nalgonda districts are widely used in our country for panelling, and flooring purposes. Sullavai limestone of Karminagar and Warangal districts, massive limestones of Mudimanikyam, Nalgonda districts. Andhra Pradesh's limestone reserves are estimated about 30,424 million tonnes. Total India's limestones are estimated about 93,623 million tonnes. Limestones are extensively utilised for manufacturing of cement and also building stones, particularly flooring and roofing (Dept of Mines and Geology).
Other dimensional stones
There are some other dimensional stones being quarried and used in consumption, in addition to the dimensional stones already detailed above. Laterite bricks are quarried in huge quantities and are utilised as bricks in the construction of houses and for pavements in the states of Orissa, Karnataka, Goa, and in other parts of coastal states. The felspathic sandstone occurring with the coal seams as overburden is also used as building stone. The huge deposits of basalt in the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Gujarat are used as building stones since ancient times. Other quartzitic bands, occurring with phyllites and schists, are also utilised for building purposes. Khondelites from Eastern coast are being used widely in sculptures and as a building material. Felsite from Karnataka is being extensively used as a dimensional stone as well. India also contains many stones which are semiprecious like-zoisite, apophyllite, cavansite, muscotive mica, almandine, etc.
Why Choose Natural Stone?
Natural stone is held in high regard as a premier building material because it reflects unique character, stability, and grandeur. Variations in natural stone’s broad range of color, pattern, and texture are visually interesting and impossible to replicate. And, because it comes from the earth, from eco-friendly compositions, it is a natural choice.
The diversity of natural stone products encourages limitless design potential. Aesthetically, what you do with stone is as varied as your imagination. Its many factors in the way stone formed within the Earth contribute to its varieties and enhance the creativity it provides – something that cannot be duplicated in a laboratory or come from a mould.
Natural stone exhibits a durability not found in other building materials. There is an emotional connection to buildings and monuments built in stone that carries a great deal of meaning due to enduring history and a legacy of mankind through the ages.
Natural stone products like those created in granite, marble, limestone, slate and sandstone, among others possess innate characteristics that contribute toward LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) or LEED intended construction. Consider stone’s low embodied energy, ready availability as a naturally occurring material – often locally (within a 500 mile radius of the project), no off-gases to impair indoor air quality, high thermal capacitance, and exceptional durability for low maintenance and structural permanence. Using natural stone for your projects shows that you care about the environment and consciously strive to preserve it.
Design projects should stand out and reflect the passion, taste, and personality of the designer. Natural stone is a one-of-a-kind building material that sets you apart from others because it can’t be mimicked, manufactured, or faked.
The value in natural stone is more than a monetary measure. It involves longevity, ease of maintenance, permanence and stability that far exceed initial investment. Utilizing natural stone is now more affordable than ever due to advancing stone quarrying and processing technology that has improved efficiency over the years. New automated machinery allows fabricators to cut natural stone thinner, faster, more consistently and at less cost than in times past. Development of anchoring technologies and systems make installation easier, quicker, and more secure. In addition, natural stone is simple to care for, has an appearance that literally improves with age and can last a lifetime.
Bengaluru, “The Silicion Valley”, “The cosmopolitan City”, also known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Located in the Deccan Plateau in the south eastern part of Karnataka, Bengaluru is India’s third most populous city and fifty-most populous urban agglomeration. Bengaluru is called the Mecca of Granite Industry because of the fact the major Granite Industries are located in and around Bengaluru.
Karnataka is endowed with rich varieties of granite resources. Approximately one hundred varieties of rocks are available in Karnataka. Granites with pleasing textures and colours apart from attractive gneisses, migmatities, sober dyke rocks are abundantly available. The peninsular gneisses, closepet granites and younger granite intrusions are main sources of ornamental stones in Karnataka. The pink migmagmatic granite and grey granite of peninsular origin are attractive and widely used. Pink peripheries and pink granites of closepet groups add to the varieties of granite with their enchanting look.